IJM News since 2010

  • The same gene has made it possible to "invent" hemoglobin several times

    Hemoglobin is a circulating protein made up of several subunits called globins. Hemoglobin has evolved independently several times in animals, such as vertebrates, segmented worms, or snails. However, a team from the IJM, working in parallel on the red-blooded marine worm Platynereis and on genomic data from all animals, has demonstrated that the different forms of animal hemoglobins all derive from the same ancestral gene, cytoglobin.

  • Call for Group Leaders

    The Institut Jacques Monod (IJM), a leading center for fundamental interdisciplinary research in biology, is seeking to appoint at least two talented group leaders. The Institute is comprised of 30 international research groups working in the fields of biophysics, cell biology, development, evolution, genetics and genomics. The IJM is affiliated with the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université de Paris.

  • Nesprins are mechanotransducers that discriminate epithelial–mesenchymal transition programs

    LINC complexes are assemblies of transmembrane proteins that physically link the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton through the nuclear envelope. Dysfunctions of LINC complexes are associated with cancer and muscle pathologies. The mechanical roles of LINC complexes in these diseases are poorly understood. To remedy this, an IJM team has used FRET molecular tension biosensors genetically encoded in nesprin, a protein of the LINC complex, in fibroblast and epithelial cells in culture.

  • Comment s’établissent les domaines de réplication précoce ?

    Les génomes des vertébrés se répliquent selon un programme temporel précis, fortement corrélé avec leur organisation en compartiments A/B (ouverts/fermés). A ce jour cependant, les mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans la formation des domaines de réplication précoce restent encore largement incompris.

  • Paleogenetics uncovers the introduction of domestic horses in southwest Asia 4,000 years ago

    The domestication of wild animals is a crucial step in the development of past societies. While the first animals that were domesticated ca. 10-9,000 years ago for economic reasons in the Fertile Crescent in southwest Asia to increase the reliability of the subsistence resources, horses were domesticated much later, supposedly around 5,000 years ago.

  • Adiós Corona, the website compiling reliable information about COVID-19

    Why are gatherings not recommended during the COVID-19 outbreak? Can a mask be reused? Is the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resistant to sunlight? How to flirt in the time of COVID-19? What are the tips for getting on a plane? Studies on COVID-19 contradict each other: who is right, and on what basis? Lethality, mortality, excess mortality, R0, kappa: what are we talking about? Find more than 100 questions and answers answered by Adios Corona, an international team of 50 volunteer scientists led by Virginie Courtier-Orgogozo, Research Director at the Jacques Monod Institute, and Claire Wyart, Research Director at the Brain Institute.

  • Une colle de mouche qui est universelle

    Les insectes peuvent se coller à de nombreuses surfaces. Les bioadhésifs d'insecte représentent une grande source d’inspiration pour le développement de nouveaux matériaux. Chez la mouche Drosophila melanogaster, la larve sécrète une colle qui permet à l'animal de s'accrocher, pendant toute la durée de la métamorphose (plusieurs jours), à une tige, un morceau de feuille ou du plastique (au laboratoire).

  • The transformation of the genomes of the inhabitants of France during the Protohistory

    The protohistory of France was punctuated by two migration waves, one during the Neolithic that started around 6300 years ago and one during the Bronze Age 4200 years ago. This is the major result of a new paleogenomic study published in the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences” (PNAS) of the “Epigenome and Paleogenome” group of the Institut Jacques Monod, Université de Paris, CNRS in collaboration with numerous French archaeologists and paleoanthropologists affiliated to the INRAP, the CNRS, universities and archaeological companies.

  • New insights into the polarization of multicellular epithelia

    Multi-ciliated epithelia play an important role in respiratory function. In humans, multi-ciliated cells are particularly needed for respiratory clearance, a mechanism that allows renewing the protective mucus barrier protecting the lungs from pathogens and dust. Disturbances in the function of these cells caused by certain genetic mutations can thus be at the origin of severe respiratory diseases. An international collaboration between two teams form the IJM and the Max Planck Institute in Dresden has highlighted a novel mechanism for controlling the direction of ciliary beat in a multicellular epithelium. Using an invertebrate model, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, researchers have shown that the joint action of two conserved signaling pathways can generate a ciliary pattern that reflects the bilateral symmetry of the animal itself. However, the elements of the cytoskeleton on which the polarity signals act to orient the cilia exhibit chiral asymmetry. This work thus allowed to identify new molecular actors in the polarization of multi-ciliated epithelia, but also to understand how the so-called Bilaterian animals, of which we are part, can generate a bilateral symmetry from chiral molecules or structures.

  • Des pincettes en ADN pour étudier l’interaction entre une médicament et sa cible à l’échelle molécule-unique

    L’efficacité d’un médicament est fortement liée au temps que la molécule médicamenteuse passe accolée à sa cible, typiquement une protéine. Bien souvent si l’interaction est de longue durée la drogue aura un effet plus fort que si l’interaction est de courte durée. Une équipe pluridisciplinaire vient de décrire dans la revue Nature Nanotechnology une nouvelle approche à très haute résolution permettant d’observer, en temps réel, l’interaction d’une seule molécule médicamenteuse avec une seule molécule de cible. Cette observation du « quantum » d’interaction moléculaire ouvre de nouvelles perspectives dans le développement des médicaments mais aussi des anticorps thérapeutiques et de la science des matériaux.

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